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CHAPTER 1 How to Simplify Max Planks Work The gift Planck, Einstein, and Newton brought to the world, was the ability to make things simple understandable. Newton recognized 1. things in the natural world follow rules that could be expressed with mathematics. And 2. These rules could be expressed in symbols in a very simplified fashion. He simplified these rules into simple formula, such as F=ma. Force = mass times acceleration. Now that was before the metric system, which gave these quantities names. One of which became the newton, which is a unit of force. m equals mass, which is similar to weight but without the variable of gravity getting in the way. (So its easier to measure with a simple balance scale almost anywhere.) The unit of mass is the gram, which was equal to the mass of 1 centimeter^{3} of water. The centimeter was 1/100 of a meter, which was originally intended to be one tenmillionth of the distance from the Earth's equator to the North Pole (at sea level) [I assume without waves,] Uge! Whats more, this was on the meridian that went through Greenwich, England, but is kept at Svres, France just a little way from Paris. (If it sounds crazy, just know its all politics. Not only that, but when I left Montana, it was so cold I saw a politician with his hands in his own pockets!) So then it was made into two scratches on a ninety percent platinum and ten percent iridium bar, measured at the melting point of ice, but in "1960 October 14 The 11th CGPM defined the metre to be equal to 1,650,763.73 wavelengths in a vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the 2p10 and 5d5 quantum levels of the krypton86 atom."^{i} But its definition since 1983, has been defined as "the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second".^{i} Double uge! Well, at least they made it back to the laser again. a equals acceleration is measured in meters/second/second. Whats a second? Its 1/60 of a minute, which is 1/60 of an hour, which is 1/24 of the time it takes for the Earth to travel in its circle, modified by when the Sun appears in the same place in the sky, and for convenience, in a place on the opposite side of the Earth from near Paris, now called the International Date Line. Or 1/299,792,458 of the time of 1/60 1/60 1/24 1/365.25 = 1/9,460,730,472,580,800 (approximately,) of the time it takes from one winter solstices (December 21) to the next solstices, or the length of one orbit of the Earth around the Sun, corrected for the Earths showing problem. Oh wow! And I'm supposed to remember all that? So whats wrong with these measurements? The Earth is slowing down, and to make things come out right, every now and then they have to insert a leap second. (In case you havent noticed, we just had one. And if it werent for CNN you probably wouldnt have noticed or even cared.) Their goal was to keep measures working right in comparison to natural phenomena, such as the workings of cesium atomic clocks. Cesium being an easy element to work with, when measuring time such that the clock can be put in a lab in the basement of any university with the money to buy one. All this may seem silly, but if youre paying a lot of money to put a satellite in orbit, it becomes very important. Back in 1999 they crashed one on Mars because of such confusion. Einstein simplified things further with E=mc^{2}, which was proven when they evaporated Hiroshima and Nagasaki. But whats wrong with his formula? Well, m, or mass and c equals the speed of light (which is a fuzz less than 300,000 meters per second,) was measured, as a distance from the North Pole, or what they thought was the North Pole, to that place in France, which was supposed to be directly south of Greenwich England, where they built an observatory. Wow! Now the Earth isnt exactly spherical, its flat on top. So nowadays, they count 1,579,800.762042 cycles of laser light from a heliumneon laser. At least its natural and reproducible in lab basements around the world. But that wasn't accurate enough Can measures be simplified even further, so we can learn even more? Well, consider the work of Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. We just call him Max Planck. Its simpler that way. Anyway, he figured out through his study of infrared light that the natural phenomena were lumpy. So he came out with the simplified formula, which was subsequently expanded to: E=nhf. Cool! But by changing our units of measure to more equally reflect natural phenomena we could simplify things even more, and make them easier to understand. Can we go even further? Whats E? The ability to perform work. In the metric system its called joules. And its broken down into units of 10, because we have ten fingers. I suppose it would have been 20, but we tend to wear shoes, because the rocks hurt our feet. Logical huh! A more natural figure is to use binary, but thats too confusing for us, so we use hexadecimal, base 16, for a short hand method. However in electronics, we can eliminate a lot of noise using binary rather than analog circuits. So binary, or for ushexadecimal, is more practical. Its based on natural phenomena. Back to Max. Whats the h? Its a conversion factor to our complex metric systemfrom natural lumps to meters and seconds. It's equal to 6.626,069,5710^{34} Js. Aren't you glad I told you that? How about the f? Thats measured in hurtz or cycles per second. Whats the problem? The seconds part is artificial. True, nowadays, its based on the cesium atom. At least its natural, but still confusing to most people. After all, our measuring system is made so people can easily gain a better understanding of things and the ladies can get to tea on time. A iodinestabilised heliumneon laser is both common, and natural, whats more its fairly inexpensive for university labs. (Even if there are now slightly better ways.) By counting a certain number of cycles, we can measure a meter. Using interference, we can use its fantastic light to measure things which are very small. By timing the travel of a pulse, we can also accurately measure things which are very large, like we do with radar. And we can even measure time. Lets look again at Max Plancks simple formula. The f is still too complicated. Its measured in cycles per second. What if we dump the complex part, the f? What do we get? E_{n}=nhf/f = nh. Thats simpler. E_{n}= nh. h equals the natural energy lumps, I call plancks. Its the amount of energy (the ability to do work,) lumps in each level of one cycle of laser light. (Any frequency of laser light, so it doesnt matter which laser you use. What does that tell us about light? ) Anyway, they are measured in our metric system at size h, they constitute a natural phenomena, the amount of energy in a minimum energy transfer, from one thing to another, and from one energy level in a beam of laser light to another. Which is how we measure things, but currently speak of them with more complexly to add to our confusion and make us sound intelligent. And the n? Well its an integer. So its still simple. We can fire a laser at things and count the lumps. Its so simple. Even through outer space, we should be able to count the planck lumps. What about Einstein and Newton? What further can we learn in the 21st century about them, and how can we use the process of simplification to improve our knowledge of Einsteins famous E=mc^{2} equation? Next time Ill show you. By the way, whats in the middle of a Black Hole and why do Einsteins equations go bananas there?
Dr. Hait
CHAPTER 2 How Simplification Helps Us Understand Einstein Lets look at simple and see how it can work for us. If we, or our computers, count in binary, what happens? Because things work in plancks or lumps, our counting is more accurate, we dont have to convert to decimal or some analog form, we just use hexadecimal short hand. Measuring, and thus comparing, are made simpler and thus more accurate. So we can find out more about how things work, and how to build things better. Itll be hard to get scientists to change, kind of like when Louis Pasture tried to get them to wash their hands, but wont the results be more accurate? If we recalculate our complex formula to use hexadecimal, we can count even lumps. Wont that improve our work? Take for example Einsteins famous formula: E=mc^{2}, how can we use simplicity to better understand it? Consider: many years ago folks measured and calculated kinetic energy: E= mV^{2}. How can we simplify to get what Einstein got the hard way? The adjective kinetic has its roots in the Greek word "kinesis," meaning motion. The dichotomy between kinetic energy and potential energy can be traced back to Aristotle's concepts of actuality and potentiality. The principle in classical mechanics that E {is proportional to} mV^{2} was first developed by Gottfried Leibniz and Johann Bernoulli, who described kinetic energy as the living force, vis viva. Willem 's Gravesande of the Netherlands provided experimental evidence of this relationship. By dropping weights from different heights into a block of clay, Willem 's Gravesande determined that their penetration depth was proportional to the square of their impact speed. milie du Chtelet recognized the implications of the experiment and published an explanation. The terms kinetic energy and work in their present scientific meanings date back to the mid19th century. Early understandings of these ideas can be attributed to GaspardGustave Coriolis, who in 1829 published the paper titled Du Calcul de l'Effet des Machines outlining the mathematics of kinetic energy. William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, is given the credit for coining the term "kinetic energy" c. 184951.i Alright, we know where all this complexity came from. The formula E=mV^{2} came from experiments with real things. Einsteins came from thinking. Pretty good for a patent clerk, huh! The speed things move at internally within atoms, like the electron shells moving around the nucleus do so at the speed of light. Its hard to measure things that go as fast as your best tools. But they did come up with c the speed at which fields interact, which happens to also be, (as best as we can measure,) the speed of light. Because when we measure resonant things going in an orbit, like the resonant electron shell, and like a girl on a swing. We measure from the top of her path, where kinetic energy is 0, and her potential energy is max, and the bottom of her path where E_{k}=mV^{2} and her potential is 0. We get an average measurement. Whats the average between 0 and anything else. Its twice anything else. So her total energy is E=2mV^{2}= mV^{2}. Now if youre measuring atoms V=c, so the total formula becomes E=mc^{2}. Simple huh! Next time Ill show you how to finish Einsteins work as he died trying to create a Theory of Everything and unify Quantum Mechanics with his Relativity into a Unified Field Theory. Hint, we use simplicity,
Dr. Hait
CHAPTER 3 Grand Unification Why did Einstein labor so long trying to produce a Theory of Everything, a Unified Field Theory, without success? Because, the basis of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are fundamentally at odds. Relativity is based on Cause and Effect where Quantum Mechanics is based on the Summation of Random Events. Why? Einstein was smart. He was also a conscientious objector and moved to Switzerland during the 1st World War. Many others hated him, not just because he was obviously smarter than them, but because he believed in God and took actions to show it. Ontheotherhand, Warner Heisenberg (one of the main inventers of Quantum Mechanics,) believed in evolution. The Nazis were coming into power then, with the philosophy of Survival of the Fittest. Naturally, they thought they were the Fittest. But as it turned out, the Supermen had moved to Minnesota. But thats another story. However, they had only read the first part of Darwins book Origin of Species. Because in the 2^{nd} half he shoots down his own theory by showing that eyes, being inoperable until they would be completed in a million years, could not have evolved. You think eyes are complex what about the sexual process and the strong desire to make it work, which is why were all here? (Read Darwins Sex Life on http://www.advancedhowto.info ) Anyway. Heisenberg came up with his random idea. He figured that things below the quantum limit were random, and could only be studied through statistics. And evolution need random activities. Science was just getting to accurate, and proving itself to reliable. So, it sounded good. But it was all sound. However, Einstein was stumped because those formulae based on the summation of random events were more accurate than his analog formulae. Why? Well first of all. Max Planck had shown that things at that level came in lumps. Tiny lumps, but lumps nevertheless. Counting lumps is naturally more accurate than analog assumptions. So, what else was the problem? Heisenberg had warped the meaning of the word random. How do we know? Remember Newton? He figured there were laws of the universe that could be expressed mathematically. So, Newton, who did not believe in the Trinity, but did believe in a Universal Law Giver, proved to be right. But what proved him right? Science proved him right. How do we know? If you do a statistical analyses of a laser beam, what do you get? A sine wave. The frequency and amplitude may change, but you always get a sine wave. If you repeat the experiment next week or next year, what do you get? A sign wave. Thats not how random things work! If they are truly random you should get a random outcome each time. They may be complex, and may look random, but they at heart are not random. Its called pseudorandom. All of these things we can study with mathematics follow basic laws. Pseudorandom laws. Heisenberg and the Nazis were wrong. If they had read all of Darwins book, they would have known that. If Einstein had lived only 6 more years, the invention of the CW laser could have broken open the flood gates for him, for lasers would be impossible with random events. Both corrected Quantum Mechanics and Relativity now are seen to have a common basis. Unification is inevitable. Read the Resonant Field Theory. What does all of that mean for us? It means that the statistics developed under Quantum Mechanics, by and large, are accurate because they are really based on pseudorandom events. Their accuracy contributes to our understanding of the Universe. And without random events, weve proven the existence of a Master Law Giver. Whether you like it or not!
Dr. Hait
&nbadvancedhowto.infosp;CHAPTER 4 Einsteins Use of Complexity Complexity can be useful. People dont expect science to get simpler. They expect complexity. But Einsteins work created a better understanding, it made science simpler. But how do you satisfy the egos of scientists all over the world and be accepted, especially from a lowly patent clerk? You add complexity for them to realize how smart you really are. What is space? Isnt it the 3 dimensional measurement of a volume? Plus time to show change? When things make gravity, gravity gets stronger. Thus a map of gravity is affected. Instead of saying that a gravity producer placed in a gravitational field changes the map of gravity, he said it warps space. Sounds intriguing doesnt it? It worked! Smart wasnt he?
Dr. Hait
CHAPTER 5 How Do We Generate Antigravity Gravity is much like magnetism, having poles similar to the north and south poles of a magnet. However, gravity emanates most strongly from the heavier nucleus of an atom. Gravitons from large objects react with those of small objects, similar to the way a magnetic field will affect the magnetism of small paramagnetic objects in its field. Also, if you lay a loose magnet on a table, and approach it with a larger magnet, the little one will flip around into an attractive orientation, and then will slide toward the larger magnet. The repellant position exists, but is delicate to maintain. So it is with gravity, but it happens mostly at the nuclear level. When a small object, such as a nucleus, encounters a larger gravitational field, it will react, by twisting around into an attractive configuration. We dont notice that because:
This explains why gravity is usually seen as attractive. But how might we be able to generate repellant, or antigravity? Its known that nuclei are affected by magnetic fields. They can be held in place by magnetics. The affect can be stronger than the gravitational effect. The problem is, the tests have not been done, or have not been made public. The strongest magnetic fields are in a torus or donut. We know it needs to be wrapped with a coil of wire to produce an electromagnetic field inside the donut, but we do not know what material it should be made of. Logically it would be a heavy material, so that when its gravity becomes repellant, it would present the greatest lift. Tests are needed to determine which material and best configuration. There a three ways that may work:
CHAPTER 6 Whats Really in the Middle of a Black Hole Singularity is at the middle of a Black Hole. Whats Singularity? Its that place where Einsteins math went bananas. His calculations of gravity went to infinity. He said that the laws of physics broke down there. Well sort of. The true laws of physics dont break down anywhere. Its just that we dont always know exactly what the laws of physics are or how to apply them. Let me ask you this, What happens to a formula, when the denominator tents toward zero? The result goes to infinity! Get the point? Black Holes are cylindrical or funnel (a modified cylinder) shape. Some get very strong. Objects orbiting them travel real fast, approaching the speed of light. When objects fall into one, they give off one last gasp of light, which we can see. What does that tell us? Tidal forces at the edge or event horizon of a Black Hole are hallashious. Any atoms that fall into one are ripped apart giving off that last gasp of atomic energy. Consequently, any astronaut falling into one would be ripped to shreds at the edge. Theres no nightmare of being stretched out of shape in space and time as is often shown. Hed just be dead! Light does not escape, not because of superstrong gravity, although certainly their gravity is often strong enough to orbit the many solar systems in a whole galaxy, but because there just isnt any light in there to come out. Its just dark in there. Energy coming out is mainly gravitational. Its been postulated that there would exist a White Hole where stuff would exit its matching Black Hole. Could be. But not necessarily. It just slowly gets bigger and tougher. That process is needed so that it is able to organize so many planets, and keep them supplied with gravitational energy. So what about Singularity? Whats in the middle of a Black Hole? All energy structures, including Black Holes and even little atoms are circular. They need to be in order to resonate, because energy likes to do that. Black Holes are just strong enough to rip apart anything entering one, so that at its center, at Singularity, the line at which it resonates around, is NOTHING, NOTHING, NOTHING!
With all input values at zero, its little wonder that Einsteins equations went bananas. He was simply inputting values that didnt exist. Because nothing ever made it that far to give it a value to work with.
Thanks for your interest.
